CJ Jouhal
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An Entrepreneur that leverages technology to grow and enhance a business. A Technologist that understands business and entrpreneurship and makes technology facilitate the business model.

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1923 Common Travel Area Agreement

Currently, the British Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office advises against all travel to British nationals except for major international travel; However, from 4 July 2020, Ireland will be exempted from this recommendation. [54] In 1985, five member states of the then European Economic Community signed the Schengen Agreement on the gradual abolition of border controls between them. This Treaty and the 1990 Implementation Agreement paved the way for the creation of the Schengen area, implemented in 1995, and until 1997 all eu Member States, with the exception of the United Kingdom and Ireland, had signed the agreement. The Amsterdam Treaty, which was drafted this year, incorporates Schengen into EU law and has granted Ireland and the UK an opt-out to maintain systematic passport and immigration controls at their borders. The text of the Treaty made Ireland`s abandonment of the abolition of border controls conditional on the common travel area being maintained. One of the main reasons for the Schengen Agreement was to facilitate the daily cross-border movement of workers within the framework of the free movement of workers. The UK and Ireland have a short land border that only leads to part of the UK, making this reason less important to them. 2011 was the first public agreement between the UK and Irish governments on the continuation of CTA. Officially entitled “Joint Statement Regarding Co-Operation on Measures to Secure the External Common Travel Area Border”, it was signed on 20 December 2011 in Dublin by uk Immigration Minister Damian Green and Irish Justice Minister Alan Shatter.

[34] At the same time, the two ministers signed an unpublished Memorandum of Understanding. [35] As noted above, the border opening zone established by CTA has never been governed by a formal international treaty of any kind, but has existed in practice more or less continuously since the creation of the Irish State. On the other hand, the cross-border advantages of: (1) the abolition of customs controls; and (2) the creation of the internal market is of a much younger generation. Despite the existence of CTA, customs controls were applied from 1923 at points of entry between the Irish State and the United Kingdom (including along the Northern Irish border) until their abolition on 1 January 1993. Such controls were first and most obviously applied to impose customs duties – customs duties – on those who moved goods between the two States. Secondly, controls have also been carried out to ensure the application of health, safety and other standards. Finally, the Member States of a customs union can maintain all possible national rules (be they health standards, agricultural controls, minimum product standards, etc.) and verify their conformity with products entering a national market. Such controls justified the continuation of customs controls along the Northern Irish border until the creation of the European internal market in 1993, despite the fact that between 1973 and 1992 the United Kingdom and Ireland were in a full customs union. Footnote 135 Only harmonization of these health, agricultural and consumer standards is done within the framework of an internal market or is widely recognized. If the advantages of a customs union are added to those of an internal market, there is no longer any need for customs controls. .

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